Hemorrhage Diagnose and its first aid treatment
- External hemorrhage is visible.
- Blurring of vision, fainting and giddiness.
- Breathing becomes shallower (air hunger).
- Casualty complains of thirst.
- Pallor develops.
- Pulse becomes fast and weak.
- Skin feels cold and clammy.
- Unconsciousness may occur.
- Blood may appear from one of the body orifices, nose, ear etc.
The aims of treatment are to control bleeding and prevent infection.
1.Place the victim in a position in which he will be least affected by the loss of blood. Encourage the victim to lie down and particularly to keep the wounded part still. Place him with legs semi flexed to prevent aggravation of spinal injury or breathing impairment.
2.Keep the victim at rest, as movement will increase cardiac activity, increase the blood pressure and hence hemorrhage, and also interfere with clot formation dislodge a clot already formed.
3.Elevate wounded limb, if possible. That reduces pressure of blood flow at the site of injury, and reduces hemorrhage.
4.Prevent the loss of body heat by putting blankets around the victim.
5.Apply firm pressure directly on the wound through a dressing. That stops hemorrhage in most cases. Then apply a firm bandage over it to maintain the pressure. If it fails, add a dressing on the outer side and bandage firmly over it.
7.If the dressing gets soaked with blood, never replace it. Place another dressing directly over the blood soaked dressing with firm pressure.
8.Another good method of stopping bleeding is to apply pressure at pressure points. Pressure points are the places over a bone where arteries cross over the bone, the skin. Pressure at these points compresses the concerned blood vessels against the underlying bones and stops bleeding.
Various pressure points are as shown in the following table.
Site of bleeding Site of pressure point blood vessel
Upper limb Forearm, hand – Above clavicle Medial aspect of arm – Subclavian artery, brachial artery.
Hand – Lateral aspect of the front of the lower end of the forearm- Radial artery
Lower limb – Below the middle of the groin fold – Femoral artery
Leg, foot – Centre of the popliteal fossa – Popliteal artery.
Scalp – In front of the tragus of the ear – Superficial tamporal artery.
Face – I n front of angle of lower jaw, along its lower border – Facial artery.