It occurs in hot and humid environment after heavy and prolonged sweating either due to exposure to the sun or working in a close, hot atmosphere like factories, with failure to replace salt and water.
The condition is diagnosed by the following features.
- Restlessness exhaustion is present. Faintness may be experienced.
- Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting are present.
- Sometimes there are abdominal cramps, or cramps in the limbs.
- Temperature may be normal or subnormal.
- Skin may be cold and clammy.
- Breathing is fast and shallow.
- Temperature is normal and slightly elevated.
- There is pallor.
- There is loss of appetite.
- There may be shock.
- Place the victim in supine position in a cooler place with fresh air.
- Give plenty of cold water (250 ml every half hour) with salt in it (2 teaspoons in 1 liter of water). Fruit juice may be given too.
- Give him plenty of salted water.