The aims of first aid are as follows.
Make the patient comfortable.
Prevent further damage.
Get medical aid at the earliest.
The first aid measures are as follows.
- Treat bleeding, difficulty in breathing, shock and unconsciousness first.
- Treat all fractures in the position in which the victim is found rather than move him to another place. This is not possible if there bad weather or risk to the victim’s life if he is left there.
- Immobilize the fractured limb with splints. Splinting can be done by different methods. The bandaging should be fairly firm so that there is no movement at the fracture site. But it should not cut off blood supply to the distal part of the limb. Place padding material in between so that when limbs are bound together they are comfortable. Never apply bandage over the area of fracture. Apply knots on the sound side.
- Bandage one lower limb to the other one.
- Bandage one upper limb to the body.
- Bandage one digit to the adjacent one.
- Use a splint when it is available. A splint is rigid pieces of wood, plastic or metal. It should be well padded with cotton or cloth. It is tied to a fractured limb to support it and to prevent movement at the fracture site. Wide splints are better than narrow ones. A splint should extend enough to immobilize the joints above or below the fractured bones.
- Raise the injured part after immobilizing it to reduce swelling. A rolled up blankets can be used for this purpose.
- Shift him to a hospital immediately.