Wound Causes, Type and First Aid


A wound is an injury or an abnormal break in the continuity of the skin or-other tissues. In an external wound, there is danger that germs will enter the wound and cause an infection. If the wound is deep, severe bleeding may occur or there may be serious damage to structures within the body, such as the bowel, heart, lungs, or brain.

What are the types of wounds?

A wound may be open or closed. In the open wound skin is broken and blood escapes out. In a closed wound skin is not broken.

Type of                                   Cause                                              Features wound

Abrasion – Friction or pressure of a rough object. – A superficial injury involving only the outer layers of the skin. It is painful but bleeds slightly.
Bruise – Blunt force, e.g. stone, stick, or first. – It is red due to infiltration of blood into tissues. Skin over it is intact.  It becomes blue, black, and green, yellow and finally disappears with time.

Laceration- Blunt force, e.g. fall of roof, accidents in industry, fall of a house, and fall on a rough surface. – The skin and under lying tissues are torn. It has irregular edges and n abrasion.

Incised wound A weapon with a sharp cutting edge e.g. knife, razor, etc. – The edge of the wound are clean cut. It bleeds more than a laceration.

Punctured wound (stab wound) – A pointed weapon driven in through the skin, e.g. knife, arrow, spear, dagger, bullet, needle etc.- The opening is small, but the wound may be very deep. The vital organs of body may be injured through it. It is called a perforating wound when there is wound of exit too, as in the case of a gun-shot wound.

Avulsion- Excessive force – A part of the body is completely torn away, e.g. finger, toe, hand, arm, foot, ear, nose, and penis.

First Aid

  1. Place the victim in a supine position.
  2. Cover the wound with sterile gauze pad.
  3. Apply pressure to control bleeding.
  4. Apply a tourniquet if necessary
  5. Immobilize the part.
  6. Treat shock.
  7. Do not remove an object impacted in the wound.
  8. Preserve avulsed part, as it may be possible to reattach it to the body by surgery.
  9. Cover protruding organs like eyeball bowel with a sterile sheet. Do not fry to replace them.

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