Important measures to prevent infection and control bleeding during child birth-“Childbirth”

How to prevent infection When preparing for, and during the delivery it is extremely important to pay strict attention to asepsis and antisepsis because the placental bed is raw and there are a number of areas of injury in the birth passage. These can get infected very readily if microorganisms   are allowed to enter it. Measures: Keep any one with a cold, cough, or septic spots on the hands away...

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Minimum and desirable requirements for childbirth-“Childbirth”

Requirements for Childbirth Minimum requirements A lot of very clean clothes. Alcohol An antiseptic soap. Clean brush for scrubbing. Clean cotton. New razor blade to cut the umbilical cord. Sterile gauze. Two pieces of sterile, strong thread to tie the umbilical cord. Additional desirable requirements Antiseptic eye drops for the baby’s eyes. Fetoscope or fetal stethoscope for listening to the baby’s heart sounds. Sterile needle and gut thread for sewing...

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Type of Childbirth (Normal and Emergency) and its different stages-“Childbirth”

Childbirth (Normal and Emergency) Childbirth is a natural process and one does not have to do too much to see it to completion. But done improperly, there can be serious complications. Majority of births do not threaten the lives of both the mother and the baby. Labor usually lasts several hours, and there is normally adequate time to arrange for a transfer to a hospital. However sometimes she presents too...

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First aid treatment of Miscarriage its causes and diagnose-“Miscarriage”

Miscarriage It occurs before 28th week of pregnancy, when the woman really does not expect to deliver and hence is not ready for it. Then she is even less likely to be in a hospital than at term. She may be distressed and frightened. She may be reluctant to confide in a stranger, particularly if that person is a man. Miscarriage is a dangerous event and needs medical attention. It...

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First aid treatment of Noise induced hearing loss its causes, prevention and diagnose-“ Occupational Hazards”

Noise Induced Hearing Loss Industrial exposures to high noise levels can affect the hearing in workers. It is a slow process and mostly not noticed until it is quite advanced. It is an irreversible process. It is prevented by the hearing conservation program, which is as follows. Hearing conservation Program Principle                                          Features Noise survey – Detailed noise survey is carried out by the qualified occupational health team in the...

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First aid treatment of Radiation hazards its causes, prevention and diagnose-“Radiation hazards”

Radiation hazards Workers are exposed to radiation in various forms in the following areas.  Exposure to ultraviolet rays occurs I arc and other electric welding processes. Many industries use radium and other radioactive substances. Exposure to radium also occurs in mining of radioactive ores and monazite sand workers. X- rays are used in industry and medicine. Infrared rays are produced in welding, glass blowing, the molten state and in heating...

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First aid treatment of Occupational cancers its causes, prevention and diagnose-“Occupational cancers”

 Occupational cancers Cancer is a major risk factor in some industries. It appears after prolonged exposure, as long as 10 to 25 years. It may develop even after the cessation of exposure. Various types of occupational cancers are shown in the following table. Type `                                              Features Skin – In the commonest form occupational cancer. It is found among coke oven workers, dye stuff makers, gas workers, oil refiners, road makers,...

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First aid treatment of Occupational dermatitis its causes, prevention and diagnose-“Occupational dermatitis”

 Occupational dermatitis The causes of dermatitis in industries may be as follows. Primary irritants act on the skin directly. These include acids, alkalies, dyes solvents, etc. sensitizing chemicals pass through the epidermis and react with protein to produce antibodies. The skin reacts to this. Causes of Occupational Dermatitis Cause                                               Examples Physical – Heat, cold, moisture, pressure, friction, X-rays. Chemicals – Acids, alkalis, grease, solvents, dyes, pitch, tar, chlorinated phenols....

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Types of Pneumoconiosis(silicosis,anthracosis, byssinosis, bagassosis,asbestosis)its features and first aid treatment

Types of Pneumoconiosis and its features Their features are as shown in the following table. Type                         Features                       Preventive measures Silicosis – It is due to inhalation of dust containing free silica or silicon oxide.  It is found in mining, ceramic industry, slate- pencil industry, and blasting metal grinding, building and  construction work, rock mining, iron and steel industry. The higher the concentration of free silica in the dust,...

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First aid treatment of Pneumoconiosis its causes, prevention and diagnose-“Occupational Hazards”

Pneumoconiosis Pneumoconiosis is a group of lung disorders resulting from inhalation of different types of dusts. The dust gets deposited in the lung and the lungs develop reaction to the dust. It may gradually reduce the victim’s working capacity due to lung fibrosis and other complications. There is no cure for this condition. First Aid Maintain oral hygiene and skin care. For person with pulmonary involvement, monitor vital signs. Encourage...

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First aid treatment of Turpentine poisoning its causes, prevention and diagnose-“Occupational Hazards”

Turpentine poisoning It is a volatile oil derived from pine trees. It is used in the preparation of varnishes, paints, and in medicine. It poisoning usually occurs by inhalation. It is diagnosed by the following features: There is burning sensation in the esophagus. Cramping, vomiting and diarrhea are present. Pulse and respiration become slow, weak, and irregular. Irritation of urinary tract and central nervous system are seen. First Aid Give...

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First aid treatment of Cadmium poisoning its causes, prevention and diagnose-“Occupational Hazards”

Cadmium poisoning It is a white, ductile, metallic element. It is present in zinc ores. It is used in atomic reactors, electroplating, manufactures of alloys , and rechargeable battery cells. Its poisoning is diagnosed by the following features. Excessive salivation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are present. Abdominal cramps occur. Headache is present. First Aid Induce vomiting. Give gastric lavage with water. Give a saline cathartic. Shift him to a hospital...

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