First aid treatment of Chemical Warfare (Nerve gas) its effects and features-“First Aid”

Chemical Warfare The agents most commonly used in biological warfare are nerve gas and mustard gas. Nerve gas These are highly poisonous chemicals which are colorless and odorless, and hence difficult to detect when sprayed from planes, or dropped contained in bombs or shells. The liquid quickly penetrates clothes and gets absorbed through intact skin. Unabsorbed liquid quickly evaporates to form a gas which is also very dangerous. They can...

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First aid treatment of Biological warfare and its effects-“First Aid”

Biological warfare In involves introduction of diseases germs or certain toxins (poisons) produced by germs by bombs, aerial sprays, or by saboteurs who add the dangerous organisms to food or water reservoirs. Fortunately effective antibiotics or vaccines are available against almost all known biological agents. First aid Use face masks and oxygen cylinders for breathing. If these are not available, use thick pad of gauze or cotton or several layers...

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First aid treatment of Nuclear explosion and its effects-“First Aid”

 Nuclear Explosion The effects of nuclear explosion are as follows. Blast: There is a sudden and tremendous in increase in the air pressure that spreads out in waves rapidly from the site of explosion. The blast waves knock down building and shatter windows. Victims suffer from injuries from falling buildings and/or flying glass and rubble. Heat: a flash of intense heat is generated. It lasts for only a few seconds....

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Different types of disasters its common elements and injuries-“First Aid”

Disasters Disasters are sudden, catastrophic events that disrupt pattern of life, often associated with destruction of property, multiple injuries and death of a number of persons. Common elements of any disaster are as follows. Causalities Homeless persons. Disruption of sanitary facilities. Some degree of panic. Types of Disaster           Type                                ...

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Priority and Transportation in first aid treatment-“First Aid”

Priority and Transportation in first Aid  Priority                                  Conditions Highest (red tag) – Respiratory arrest, airway obstruction and severe breathing difficulties Cardiac arrest Uncontrolled severe hemorrhage and shock Severe head injuries Open chest wounds Burns involving respiratory tract Unconsciousness, coma Heart attack Poisoning Open abdominal wounds. Second (green tag) – Severe burns. Injuries to spine Moderate hemorrhage, Multiple fractures Head injuries, patient conscious Injury to spine Lowest (white tag) –Minor...

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Ambulance service in first aid treatment-“First Aid”

Ambulance service in first aid  If there are multiple causalities, as in a disaster, first aid has to be administered to a large number of victims. In such cases, the ambulance service has to be very good for rapid and efficient transfer to a hospital. The process of triage is used to sort patients according to priority for care and transport. Accordingly the patients are placed in three categories as...

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How to label and interpret a casualty in first aid treatment-“First Aid”

How to label and interpret a Casualty  During emergency, the seriously injured or unconscious persons are carried on stretchers to hospitals for treatment. Labels made up hard paper are placed on his stretcher and / or his forehead for easy deification. The symbols put on these labels and their interpretation is as shown in the following table. Labeling the Casualties Label                            interpretation C – Contaminated by persistent gas. H-...

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How to load and unload an ambulance in first aid treatment-“First Aid”

How to load an Ambulance  A few ambulances have flat built- in beds with grooves to take the runners of a standard stretcher. Four persons should do this together. One person should stand inside the ambulance to guide the stretcher. The other three should stand on both sides and one end to lift the stretcher If there are two berths to be loaded, always load the left one first. While...

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Situations and techniques to carry a loaded stretcher in first aid treatment-“First Aid”

Carrying a Stretcher When the casualty has been placed on the stretcher the bearers should take up their positions at each end of the stretcher. At least two trained persons are required. The person in charge of the victim should remain at his head. If bystanders are available they should be asked to help. The general rules for carrying a stretcher are as follows. The head should be kept higher...

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Different methods to prepare a stretcher in first aid treatment-“First aid”

Prepare a Stretcher One blanket method: place a blanket diagonally over the stretcher so that there are two opposing corners at the ends of the stretcher. After placing the victim on the stretcher, bring the point of the top blanket at the foot of the stretcher up over the victim’s feet and tuck a small fold between the ankles. Fold the point of the blanket at the head around the...

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Use, types and features of stretcher in first aid treatment-“First Aid”

Stretchers A stretcher is used to carry a seriously ill or injured victim. There are a number of stretchers available, e.g. the standard stretcher; the pole- and – canvas stretcher, the Utila folding chair, the trolley bed, the Neil Robertson stretcher, and the paraguard stretcher. A stretcher should be rigid enough to carry casualties with suspected spine fracture without having to add boards to it. To ensure that a stretcher...

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Use of Carry Chairs in first aid treatment-“First Aid”

Carry chairs These chairs are kept in many schools, workplaces, and shops. They are used for moving casualty’s long passages and up and down stairs. Unfold the chair. Test it by pushing down the seat, to check that it can support the casualty’s weight. Confirm the following things. The canvas seat and back are not showing signs of wear and tear. The wheels move freely. The safety strap is secure...

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