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Clinical manifestations of shock and its first aid treatment

  1. The skin feels cool and clammy.
  2. There is severe pallor.
  3. The pulse is rapid and thready.
  4. Breathing is sighing or irregular.
  5. Vomiting and retching may be present.
  6. Eyelids are half open, pupils are dilated.
  7. There is blurring of vision.
  8. Urine output is low or absent.
  9. There may be coma.

First Aid

  1. Place the victim in supine position with his head lower than the rest of his body, his head turned to one side. This improves venous return from the lower limbs and improves blood supply to the brain.
  2. Cover him with a blanket or a coat.
  3. Loosen any tight clothing to improve the circulation and assist berthing.
  4. Find and if possible, treat the cause of the shock.
  5. Do not give alcohol orally.
  6. Do not give hot drinks to victims of suspected brain injuries.
  7. Do not allow a crowd to gather around the patient.
  8. Do not allow him to see his own injuries.
  9. Shift him to a hospital immediately.

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