Head injuries are always grave injuries because they can be associated with serious injury to the brain within the skull. Niese may be accompanied by skull fractures. They may be caused by road accidents, mining accidents, sports accidents, fall from a height etc. Various manifestations of head injuries are as follows.
- Scalp wounds.
- Skull fractures.
- Concussion: there is a temporary disturbance of the function of the brain. The victim becomes unconscious. However he recovers fully after some time. He may_ not remember any of the previous happenings.
- Intracranial hemorrhage: it may be due to tear of the meninges producing extradural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or intracerebroventricular hemorrhage. External pressure on the brain damages it. The increase in the intracranial tension may make the victim unconscious. If the brainstem gets pushed down the vertebral canal, the vital centers may get damaged and produce cardio respiratory arrest and death.
The condition is diagnosed by the following features.
- The victim may be unconscious.
- The pupils may be dilated, not responding to light, or of unequal size.
- Respiration may be labored or noisy.
- Pulse may be slow and bounding.
- Neurological signs may be present, e.g. paralysis of one side of the body.
- Place the victim in recovery position.
- Monitor his vital parameters every 10 minutes.
- Do not give him anything orally.
- Shift him to a hospital immediately.