Resuscitation and ABC of Resuscitation in Cardiac Arrest
Resuscitation is an emergency technique for the restoration to life or consciousness of the person whose respiration and cardiac activity have ceased. Cessation of these functions results in cessation of oxygenation of blood and pumping of the oxygenated blood to tissues. Since oxygen is essential for survival, resuscitation is done to reestablish tissue oxygenation until respiratory and cardiac functions are restored.
ABC of Resuscitation
A – Clear Airway.
B – Restore Breathing
C – Restore Circulation
The airway may be blocked in an unconscious patient due to loss of cough and gag reflexes. That allows the tongue to sag back and block the airway. Mucus or foreign bodies like regurgitated solid food particles may also block the airway. That makes breathing difficult and noisy. Airway is cleared as follows.
- Use the index finger to hook out any material in the mouth and pharynx, such as broken teeth, vomit, broken dentures, or mucous.
- Remove constrictions around the neck, if any.
- Hyperextend the neck by placing one hand under the neck and the other hand on forehead to tilt the head back. Lift the chin forwards. That pulls the tongue forwards and opens the airway.